These had limited capacity, were slow for both reading and writing, required complex high-voltage drive circuitry, and could be re-written only after erasing the entire contents of the chip.

most consumer desktop and laptop computers have one or more USB 3.0 ports available on the back IO plane or through PCB headers.

USB 3.0 expansion cards are also available to upgrade older systems.

Altering the contents of a particular memory location involved copying the entire field into an off-chip buffer memory, erasing the field, modifying the data as required in the buffer, and re-writing it into the same field.

This required considerable computer support, and PC-based EEPROM flash memory systems often carried their own dedicated microprocessor system.

Flash drives are more or less a miniaturized version of this.

The development of high-speed serial data interfaces such as USB made semiconductor memory systems with serially accessed storage viable, and the simultaneous development of small, high-speed, low-power microprocessor systems allowed this to be incorporated into extremely compact systems.It was announced in late 2008, but consumer devices were not available until the beginning of 2010.The USB 3.0 interface specifies transfer rates up to 5 Gbit/s (625 MB/s), compared to USB 2.0's 480 Mbit/s (60 MB/s).Drives typically use the USB mass storage device class to communicate with the host.A Kingston card reader which accepts Micro SD memory cards (Transcend card shown partially inserted), and acts as a USB flash drive; resulting size is approximately 2 cm in length, 1 cm in width, and 2 mm in thickness.Pua Khein-Seng from Malaysia is considered by many to be the "Father of Pen Drive".