These communities continued the lifestyles of the Upper Paleolithic.

The Prehistory of Transylvania describes what can be learned about the region known as Transylvania through archaeology, anthropology, comparative linguistics and other allied sciences.

Transylvania proper is a plateau or tableland in northwest central Romania.

The chronological frame of the Paleolithic coincides with that of the Pleistocene (the first period of the Quaternary), and is marked by four great glaciations, as established in the Alps (Günz, Mindel, Riss and, Würm).

While an ever-increasing amount of data has become available on the evolution of the climate, fauna and vegetation of present-day Romania, there is very little in the fossil record to give researchers an idea of what Paleolithic man in Romania looked like.

The populations evolving at the onset of the Bölling oscillation (approximately 12,000 BP) and which have continued to the end of the Preboreal have been generally attributed to the Epipaleolithic.

Consequently, this historical period could be associated with the interval between 13,000 and about 9,500-9,000 BP.

A skull capsule discovered by Roska in the Cioclovina Cave displays features attributed to Homo sapiens sapiens, and dates back to the Upper Paleolithic as indicated by three flint objects peculiar to the Aurignacian discovered next to them.

Likewise, in the Ciurul Mare Cave in the Pǎdurea Craiului Mountains (Transylvania) speleologists have discovered some distinctively male, female and child footprints.

The process of regional diversification among cultures was accelerated in the Upper Paleolithic through the middle to upper Würm.