Even children's games portrayed blacks as inferior beings (see "From Hostility to Reverence: 100 Years of African-American Imagery in Games").

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Blacks who violated Jim Crow norms, for example, drinking from the white water fountain or trying to vote, risked their homes, their jobs, even their lives. Blacks had little legal recourse against these assaults because the Jim Crow criminal justice system was all-white: police, prosecutors, judges, juries, and prison officials. Lynchings were public, often sadistic, murders carried out by mobs.

Between 1882, when the first reliable data were collected, and 1968, when lynchings had become rare, there were 4,730 known lynchings, including 3,440 black men and women.

Jim Crow laws touched every aspect of everyday life.

For example, in 1935, Oklahoma prohibited blacks and whites from boating together. In 1905, Georgia established separate parks for blacks and whites.

There were separate hospitals for blacks and whites, separate prisons, separate public and private schools, separate churches, separate cemeteries, separate public restrooms, and separate public accommodations.

In most instances, the black facilities were grossly inferior -- generally, older, less-well-kept.

In 1930, Birmingham, Alabama, made it illegal for blacks and whites to play checkers or dominoes together.

Here are some of the typical Jim Crow laws, as compiled by the Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site Interpretive Staff: The Jim Crow laws and system of etiquette were undergirded by violence, real and threatened. The most extreme forms of Jim Crow violence were lynchings.

Unfortunately for blacks, the Supreme Court helped undermine the Constitutional protections of blacks with the infamous Plessy v.